History – Year 12

Unit 1: Change and Consolidation
Unit 2: Historical Issues: Periods of Change


Unit 1: Change and Consolidation

France in Revolution, 1774–1815

This unit provides an overview of the internal development of the French Revolution and its impact on major European states. The political, social and economic impact of the Revolution and of the ensuing period of Napoleonic rule are main issues. This unit raises important issues about the relative strengths of the revolutionary and conservative forces and the nature and impact of political change. As well as embracing political ideas and developments, the social, cultural and economic dimensions of the period will be addressed and students will assess the importance of key individuals such as Louis XVI, Robespierre and Napoleon. This examination of the impact of the French Revolution on leaders, peoples, states, institutions and policies will generate opportunities for debate about the causes and results of revolutionary activity.

Autumn Half Term 1

The Origins Of The French Revolution, 1774–1789

  • The Ancient Regime: absolutism, the Estates and Parlements
  • The financial crisis of the monarchy in the 1770s: the costs of war and the issue of taxation
  • The ideas of the Enlightenment: the philosophies and challenges to the existing order
  • The failure of the Finance Ministers: the Assembly of Notables and the Revolt of the Nobles

Autumn Half Term 2 +  Spring Half Term 1

The French Revolution: From Monarchy To Republic, 1789–1792

  • The calling of the Estates General and the creation of the National Assembly
  • The importance of the Parisian crowd and peasant risings
  • Reforms leading to the establishment of the Constitutional monarchy in 1791
  • The radicalisation of the Revolution: the impact of religious change, the war against Austria and Prussia, the growing dominance of the sans-culottes
  • The creation of the Republic

Spring Half Term 2

The French Revolution: Terror and the search for stability

  • The execution of the King and the establishment of the Terror
  • The influence and fall of Robespierre
  • Events leading to the establishment of the Directory, including the risings of 1795 and the White Terror
  • Events leading to the seizure of power by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799

Summer Half Term 1

Napoleonic Rule in France, 1799–1815

  • The establishment and consolidation of Empire
  • Napoleonic rule within France: the impact of social, religious, legal and administrative reforms
  • Economic policies, including the issue of taxation
  • The extent to which Napoleon had transformed France by 1815

Summer Half Term 2

Candidates will be given time to undertake a period of revision and examination preparation. On all units of study candidates should be able to discuss these areas critically and be able to comment on social and political aspects of life in revolutionary France.

Unit 2: Historical Issues: Periods of Change

Life in Nazi Germany, 1939 – 1945

This unit provides an opportunity to investigate the impact of a dictatorship upon a complex modern society. Students will need to have a sound understanding of the context and chronology of the Third Reich but the main emphasis will be on analysis and assessment of Nazi policies and their impact on various sections of society. Study of Nazi policy focuses on the use of propaganda, terror, legal power and social policy and will include the study of opposition to the regime in terms of non-conformity and resistance. The main social groups to be studied are women, the youth, farmers, the urban working class, the Mittelstand, the churches, the trade unions and the traditional elites.

In order to judge the extent of change across the period, candidates will need to have a broad understanding of the development of Germany from 1890, considering its economic growth and stunted political development as well as the failed military ambitions of the Kaiserreich. Candidates should also have an awareness of the impact of the First World War on Germany and of the difficulties experienced by the new Weimar Republic. The ideas of Adolf Hitler and the growth and appeal of Nazism before 1933 should also be considered.

Autumn Half Term 1

The Nazi Consolidation of Power, 1933–1934

  • The coming to power of Hitler and the Nazis in January 1933
  • Nazi ideology in 1933: the promotion of positive and negative stereotypes
  • The use of terror, compromise, legal power, propaganda and policies to consolidate power to August 1934

Autumn Half Term 2 + Spring Half Term 1

Nazi Propaganda and Mass Indoctrination

  • The use of parades and public spectacle; newspapers and radio; popular culture, especially music and cinema; the manipulation of education; censorship
  • Goebbels and The Hitler Myth
  • The content of propaganda; ideology and successes of the regime, including the Nazi ‘economic miracle’ and the apparent elimination of unemployment; the Olympic Games of 1936
  • The impact of the invasion of the USSR and ‘Total War’ on Nazi propaganda

Spring Half Term 2

Nazi organisations and the co-ordination of German society

  • Youth: schools and universities, the Hitler Youth and the League of German Maidens
  • Workers: the German Labour Front and Strength through Joy
  • Peasants: the policies of Darré
  • The Churches: Protestant and Catholic
  • The role of the SS, SD and Gestapo in suppressing opposition
  • The extent of conformity and resistance by 1939

Summer Half Term 1

  • Changes in attitudes and daily lives, 1939–1941
  • The impact on the regime and the people of the invasion of the USSR and the start of ‘Total War’
  • The effects of mass bombing and military defeats from 1943
  • The state of Germany in 1945

Summer Half Term 2

Candidates will be given time to undertake a period of revision and examination preparation. On all units of study candidates should be able to discuss these areas critically, evaluate and analyse a series of sources and be able to comment on the nature of change within Germany.