Unit 3: The State and the People: Change and Continuity
British Monarchy: the Crisis of State, 1642–1689
This unit promotes an understanding of change and continuity over a period of 47 years. Through the study of key events in depth, for example the regicide, candidates will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationship of individuals such as Charles I and Oliver Cromwell, as well as ideas like millenarianism and republicanism. Candidates will also examine other factors such as the role of religion and political radicalism and their relative importance to the processes of change and consolidation in the context of the relationship between state and people. Additionally, as a result of the study of the period as a whole, candidates will be able to explain the major political and religious issues in the context of how the nature of monarchy, parliament and the authority of the state developed within the period.
Autumn Half Term 1
From Monarchy to Republic, 1642–1653
- The personality and policies of Charles I and reasons for the defeat of the Royalist cause, 1642–1646; Charles I and the failure of attempts to reach a settlement, 1646–1649
- Parliamentary factionalism and the politicization of the New Model Army; the ideas and influence of the Levellers and Diggers; military opposition to Parliament, 1646–1649
- Radical religious groupings: Fifth Monarchists and Ranters; Presbyterianism and independency
- The establishment of the Rump Parliament and the Commonwealth; its failures and Cromwell’s reasons for its dissolution
- The parliament of the Saints: reasons for its creation, its failures and the decision to abandon it
Autumn Half Term 2 + Spring Half Term 1
From Republic to Monarchy, 1653–1667
- Cromwell as Lord Protector and theories of government; Republican, Royalist and military opposition to the Protectorate and Cromwell; the influence of radical religious groupings, including the Fifth Monarchists and Quakers; ideas of religious toleration; reactions to the rule of the Major Generals; Cromwell’s foreign policy, including overseas trade and the use of sea power
- Republican divisions, 1658–1660; the failure of republicanism and the Restoration Settlement, 1658–1667
- Charles II and royal government to 1667; the role of Clarendon; Charles II’s relations with France and the Netherlands; the Second Dutch War; religious policies of Charles II, 1660–1667; the failure of opposition to Charles II, 1660–1667
Spring Half Term 2
The Consolidation of Charles II’s Rule, 1667–1678
- The role of key personalities: Charles II and his ministers; relations between Crown and Parliament, including issues of finance
- The clash between Court and Country – the emergence of Tories and Whigs; continuing support for Republicanism
- Divisions between Anglicans and Dissenters; the impact of the Test Act
- Charles II’s relations with France and the Netherlands
Summer Half Term 1
Succession Crisis and ‘Glorious Revolution’, 1678–1689
- Charles II, 1678–1685: the Exclusion Crisis and reasons for its failure; his growing absolutism
- James II, his personality and aims; political and religious opposition to him and the crisis of 1688–1689
- The ‘revolution’ of 1689 and the position and power of monarchy
Summer Half Term 2
Candidates will be given time to undertake a period of revision and examination preparation. On all units of study candidates should be able to discuss these areas critically and produce synoptic essays
Unit 4: Historical Enquiry Coursework
Candidates will be required to submit a Historical Enquiry, based on the investigation of a historical issue. The principal characteristics of this are that:
Autumn Term + Spring Term + Summer Term 1
- The work is that of an individual working within a framework that is specified by AQA
- The work is based on a historical investigation and demonstrates some awareness of historiography
- A range of sources is considered and evaluated
- The topic chosen must arise from the study of, and be placed in the context of, 100 years
- Synoptic understanding is demonstrated by studying an issue over 100 years
- The enquiry is presented in essay format and written in continuous prose.
- The entry of candidates for the Historical Enquiry is conditional, in the case of school and college candidates, on the centre providing the necessary supervision and authentication of coursework.
- The history of Ireland and the “Irish problem” will be focus of the essay from a choice of seven.
Summer Half Term 2
Candidates will now be given additional time to revise for unit having now submitted their finished coursework.